To produce a piece of batik cloth, required a series of diverse activities and sufficient time. This batik process although in general a lo of similarities between one another, but there are some considerable differences stand out, which is why batik in one area with a batik look different from other regions.
In a little book guide Batik (1981), mentioned that there are several ways to make batik, the one with the other reveal some differences, namely:
The process of making batik at Pamekasan many ways Banyumasan follow. The process starts from the wash cloth to ngelorod entirely through 10 to 12 stage. Before entering the process of making batik, preceded by the preparation process.
Was first performed in the preparation process is “ cut the cloth “ Cloth in the from of rolls cut into pieces whose size adjusted to the length of batik cloth to be made. For regular long cloth, usually 2.40 cm in size. Primed cloth which is usually 34 m in length is cut into 14 pieces to its normal size. End of the cloth are then sewn or otherwise called “plepet” so that no loose threads.
He next activity is to “was or mengetel” to remove the starch that is in the normally thick cloth, and later replaced with a lighter kanji. The trick is to soak them in clean water. Laundering typically takes one day. But now usually batik cloth is ready with a light starch.
Then the cloth was cut into pieces according to the required size, soaked in a solution of peanut oil / oil mixed with soda Camplong. This activity is called “mengetel”, or “ngetthel”. There were also craftsmen who directly use the wash cloth near to water mixed with oil and wood combustion ash taken from the furnace. Mengetel Basically, there are severel ways, nemely:
The next stage is “starching” by using a solution of tapioca flour, to avoid the pervasiveness candle / night into the fabric thereads. Craftsmen deliberately not taken the starch, because it is less able to absorb into the fabric fiber.
Furthermore, “mengemplong” ie leveling and smooting the fabric. The trick, a few pieces of fabric are stacked and folded, then placed on the wooden base. Piles of fabric is beaten with a wooden paddle until it looks flat. Afterward, the folds of cloth split open and pages. The fabric is ready for dibatik. This activity is now rarely perfomed.
After the preparatory process consiting of a series of activities as defined above, the began the process of batik it self.
Initial avtivity is the ”draw”. First they draw the basic pattern with a pencil, according to motives as they wanted.
This was followed by using canting (“cantheng Bhs. Madurese) whose ink is made from the night (Madurese called “Malam”). This is the actual activities of batik. But again, the pictures they make will not wear pattern, but spontaneous. This is what makes a typical Madurese batik.
He parts are planned to remain white, covered with wax. So they make dots or strokes in accordance with the drawings that have been made. Close to the candle is intended so that later when the dyed fabric to be colored, the last remains white. The white color way still be colored white or other colors may be given at the second stage of coloration.
After completion dibatik, the next activity is “meddhel” which gives color to the white fabric using indigo or napthol.
The technique of this color varies, according to its activities. It’s called “meddhel” which gives a dark blue color on the fabric. However, for a colorful batik, batik is not “dibaddhel” but given the desired colors with the base color dyeing techniques. There is also the so-called “dhulidhan” which gives color to the batik cloth in certain places with a dye solution dikuaskan. There is a technique called “menyoga” which gives a brown color on fabric batik. The term comes from the name of the plant which is called “sogha”
The last activity return to “melorod” means eliminating all “malam” inherent in the cloth by putting it into boiling water. After that, the cloth is dried in the hot sun. In this process there is an important step that is giving the color. Strong color is the exellent of Madura batik.
The are chemical dyes used in this staining process, but now according to the “back into nature” spirit, most of batik workers use the batik dyes derived from local natural herbs called “natural sogha”. To produce red, they use noni (Morinda Citriflora). Blue is obtained from the leaves of Tarum or Indigo (Indigofera). Mundu plus alum skin will produce green. Yellow is obtained from tumeric (Curcuma Domestika), whiting and Java acid (Tamarindus Indica). To obtain the effect of light or dark colors, they set the immersion. If you wish to obtain a dark color, the imbuing is made longer, and vice versa.
The time required for processing of working batik varies, depending on the type of cloth, motifs and various colors are used. Firstly, each piece of batik takes a month on average. It has been shortened now.
The equipments used in the working batik process are mentioned below:
It is used to draw motifs on the cloth. It consist of the head and bandle able with its “cucuk”. At the end of head, there is a small hole where a candle or “malam” out. There is a canting with one bollow, two, even seven, that its use is tailored to the needs of the image.
Posoh function to cover flowers or basic cloth’s color that want to be maintained.
Used to head the wax or “malam”
Function to be a place to hang the batik cloth.
It is normally made of stainless steel wood or metal and is used for dyeing batik.
The materials user in the process of working batik are bellow :
The type of cloth used for batik is so various.
There is a cotton cloth which is called mori.
The types of mori are santung, Swantyo, Prima, Primise and Syfon. There is also the use of silk with the Type 54, Type 56 and Type Organdy.
Lately, is is also known silk cloth called ATBM (Not Weaving Machine Tools).
There is use of natural dyes and there is the use of the synthetic one.
Theres 2 type of technic in making Batik Pamekasan, they are: